Despite the unusual circumstances, QTeQ has published several works in Physical Review in the first half of 2020, highlighting QTeQ’s top-quality research and fruitful collaborative environment: 3 Phys. Rev. Lett. (summarized below), 2 Phys. Rev. Research, 1 Phys. Rev. B and 2 Phys. Rev. E. Well done!!
In the first of the 2020’s QTeQ’s PRLs, “Machine learning-based classification of vector vortex beams” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 160401 (2020), done in collaboration with Fabio Sciarrino’s group at Sapienza Università di Roma, QTeQ’s endeavors have focused on the machine learning side, in particular, in the use of convolutional neural networks and principal component analysis for the classification of specific and complex polarization patterns. This work demonstrates the significant advantages resulting from the use of machine learning-based protocols for the construction and characterization of high-dimensional resources for quantum protocols.
The second PRL in the list goes to “Quantum State Engineering by Shortcuts to Adiabaticity in Interacting Spin-Boson Systems” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 180401 (2020), a QTeQ-made work where shortcuts-to-adiabaticity protocols have been demonstrated to be very well suited to generate a breadth of quantum states with very high fidelities, while allowing for a reduced evolution time for their preparation and thus naturally robust against potential decoherence processes. Thanks to the ubiquity of the considered Jaynes-Cummings interaction, such protocols can be relevant in several experimental platforms, where interesting quantum states could be realize, such as Fock states, cat-like superposition thereof, and states akin to photon-added and subtracted.
The third PRL goes to a novel phenomenon blending nonequilibrium dynamics and open quantum systems, “Universal anti-Kibble-Zurek scaling in fully-connected systems” Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 230602 (2020), done in collaboration with Andrea Smirne (Milan) and Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio (Ulm). Although a driven critical system features Kibble-Zurek scaling laws, those are typically sensitive to the unavoidable system-environment interaction leading to an anti-Kibble-Zurek effect, namely, the slower the quench, the more nonequilibrium excitations are created. In this work we have shown that, even when the standard (isolated) scaling laws break down due to the open nature of the dynamics, there is an anti-Kibble-Zurek scaling which depends solely on the equilibrium critical exponents of the phase transition.
Keep up the momentum!!
QTeQ is proud of their own Luca Innocenti, who successfully defended his PhD thesis today 12th of June 2020. Luca’s work, which blended theory and experiments addressing the use of machine learning in quantum physics, was assessed by Gabriele (internal examiner) and Prof. Marco Barbieri from University Roma Tre (Italy).
Well done Luca!!
Congratulations to Alessio and co-workers on their recently accepted paper in the prestigious Nature Communications (link here) on quantum clocks and the temporal localisability of events in the presence of gravitating quantum systems!!
In this recent work, with lead author Dr Esteban Castro-Ruiz, a team of physicists led by Professor Caslav Brukner from the University of Vienna and the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) Vienna explored the temporal localisability of events when quantum systems influence space-time according to Einstein’s general relativity. Dr Alessio Belenchia, from Queen’s University Belfast, is among the authors of this new work.
The study develops a framework to operationally define events and their localisation with respect to a quantum clock reference frame, also in the presence of gravitating quantum systems. The major results are that the time localisability of events becomes relative, depending on the reference frame, and that for each event there exists always a (quantum) clock according to which that event occurs at a sharp, precise time. This is useful because, using this clock as a reference, the time evolution of quantum systems still can be described similarly as in the ordinary situations where all events are localised in time.
QTeQ is delighted to announce that Dr. Alberto Imparato will be joining us from January to July 2020 in Belfast! Alberto Imparato is an expert on statistical physics, and in particular on out-of-equilibrium systems and autonomous motors. He is currently an Associate Professor at Aarhus University (Denmark) in the Department of Physics and Astronomy (see link). Alberto has taken a sabbatical to join us in Belfast; it will be a pleasure to combine efforts and expertise to develop new ideas and exciting projects!
A new QTeQ paper on macrorealism has just been accepted by Journal of Physics B (available here). The paper, written by Marta Marchese and Hannah McAleese, proposes a test of macrorealism on a hybrid optomechanical system in which the mechanical oscillator occupies states which are macroscopically distinguishable. The violation of Leggett-Garg inequalities in this scheme confirms that the assumptions of both macroscopic realism and non-invasive measurability are invalid.
Well done! 🙂
A PhD position is available immediately to work at the Quantum Technology Group at Queen’s with Prof. Mauro Paternostro on non-equilibrium quantum thermodynamics enhanced by machine learning. The position will be funded by the Royal Society Wolfson Research Fellowship recently awarded to Prof. Mauro Paternostro. Applications through the CTAMOP portal (https://web.am.qub.ac.uk/wp/ctamop/postgrad/) will be accepted until 13 December 2019. All applicants will be interviewed and the successful candidate is expected to start in early 2020.
A postdoctoral research position to undertake theoretical research on “Quantum Thermodynamics” for 30 months from 01/05/2020 to 31/10/2022 is open for applications until 03/01/2020. This post will be funded by an EPSRC grant entitled “Quantum Many-Body Engines” awarded to Dr. Gabriele De Chiara. The project will be conducted in collaboration with experimental groups working on ultracold atomic setups with the aim of designing and realising experimentally quantum thermodynamic machines. More details are available here.
Thanks to the tremendous advance in the experimental realisations of quantum technologies applications of thermodynamics with quantum devices are foreseeable in the near future. In the new emerging field of quantum thermodynamics a considerable effort is being devoted to the design and analysis of thermal machines and refrigerators operating at the quantum level and the theoretical foundation of thermodynamics from quantum principles, including the definition of thermodynamic quantities like heat and work, with inputs from quantum information theory.
There are currently several attempts at realising quantum machines, capable of producing work, with a few degrees of freedom, e.g. a single particle. Although quantum thermodynamics is developing very fast, it is not yet clear how to scale up such machines to systems composed of many quantum particles. This achievement would enable practical applications of quantum machines as autonomous devices capable of correcting errors and imperfections in quantum simulators and quantum computers as well as serving as assemblers of quantum materials at the nanoscale.
The overarching challenge of this project is to theoretically design thermal machines, that use as working substance an ensemble of many interacting quantum particles. More specifically, we will consider a network of interacting quantum particles, quantum harmonic oscillators and localised spins, externally driven and coupled to thermal and non-equilibrium reservoirs. The network will be arranged in order to transform heat into mechanical work, thus operating as a thermal engine, or to employ external work to extract heat from a cold reservoir for the realisation of a refrigerator. As a further step, we will optimise the geometry and architecture of the network itself to deliver work and refrigeration with the largest power and efficiency. Since it would be a formidable task to optimise all the tens of parameters of the Hamiltonian, we will employ machine learning techniques to this end. Finally, an important fraction of the project will be done in collaboration with two experimental groups working on ultracold atoms with the aim of designing thermal machines that can be realised with their current experimental setups. In collaboration with J. Sherson (Aarhus) we will design an engine whose working substance and reservoirs are realised with ultracold atoms in optical lattice potentials. In collaboration with T. Donner (Zürich) we will design a refrigerator made of two atomic Bose-Einstein condensates that interact with the common mode of an optical cavity.
A 4-year PhD position is available to work with Mauro Paternostro on thermodynamics of quantum systems within a recently awarded Leverhulme Trust grant. Details on the project are reported below. Applications from graduate students in Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics are now invited. Applications from interested students should be submitted through the following link. Successful applicants will receive stipend and tuition fees support (EU/Home rate) and support towards research and training activities. Deadline for applications: Wednesday 12 December 2018.
Thermodynamics is one of the pillars upon which science is built. It predicts and explains the occurrence and efficiency of complex chemical reactions and biological processes. In physics and engineering, the conduction of heat, the concept of the arrow of time and the efficiency of motors are formulated in thermodynamic terms. In information theory, the definitions of information and entropy are explicitly related to thermodynamics. The relevance of this field extends all the way down to the most routine of our activities: cars, heat pumps and fridges work and are designed according to the principles of thermodynamics.
The key ingredient of thermodynamics are thermal fluctuations: temperature makes the energy of a particle in a gas fluctuate. This occurs all the way down to the microscopic, single-atom level. Yet, when we are interested in the thermodynamic properties of such elementary constituents of matter, we should include in our description the predictions of quantum theory. In such a framework, “quantum” fluctuations are key: these are intrinsically different from the classical thermal one, and occur even when the temperature of the system is zero.
While we are aware of the possibility to describe thermal and quantum fluctuations under the unifying umbrella of “quantum thermodynamics” — i.e. the generalisation of classical thermodynamics to a quantum context — there is no experimental demonstration, so far, of the possibility to harness quantum fluctuations to the advantage of thermodynamic tasks. This project will provide exactly such much needed, long sought-after evidence by working towards the demonstration of the first working engine that operates fully within the quantum domain.
The goal of this project is to kick-start the research on devices using quantum thermodynamics for a new paradigm of quantum technologies. We will aim at achieving enabling technological and scientific objectives that will embody crucial stepping stones towards the implementation of quantum thermodynamic machines. Specifically:
(i) We will understand the fundamental mechanism that rules the energy-exchange processes undergone by our elementary working medium and its environment. Such understanding is thus the key to ground the quantum counterpart of thermodynamics, and to build prototypes of quantum thermo- machines.
(iii) We will demonstrate theoretically a fully operational quantum thermo-machine based on a single atom, characterising its efficiency against quantum resources consumed/created across their lifetime. (iii): We will enhance the performance of such machines through the use of sophisticated quantum control techniques, with the aim of widening the gap between classical machines and quantum devices. (iv): We will extend the architecture for a quantum engine to many-particle working media. This will open up the possibility to exploit quantum many-body physics to enhance the functionalities of quantum engines.
QTeQ strikes an Editors’ Suggestion for their latest paper in Phys. Rev. Lett.!!!
As a result of an international collaboration (involving ETH Zurich, the University of Vienna, the University of Sao Paulo, Universidade Federal do ABC, Chalmers, and the University of Cambridge), Alessandro, Gabriele and Mauro have published a paper in Phys. Rev. Lett. reporting on the assessment of entropy production from non-equilibrium quantum processes realised in an optomechanical system and an intra-cavity BEC one. The paper puts in place a theoretical framework for the observation of entropy production in Gaussian states developed as a result of the Sao Paulo–Belfast all-theory collaboration and embodies the first observation of entropy production in non-equilibrium mesoscopic quantum systems. Huge work done by former QTeQers Matteo Brunelli and Lorenzo Fusco, who worked hard to see these results published. Well done guys!!!
The details of the paper can be found here
QTeQ has been awarded a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant to investigate thermodynamics of quantum systems and the construction of a single-atom quantum engine using optical tweezers and quantum control techniques. The project, called UltraQuTe, is a collaboration with the Birmingham-based experimental group led by Dr. Giovanni Barontini, an expert in the manipulation of the quantum state of ultra-cold atoms and an enthusiast of quantum thermodynamics. A new member of QtEQ will join the group in November!!